Do animals have memory

Whether animals have memory or not is a controversial question for a long time. We always think that memory is a unique function of human beings. However, the fact of a series of evil II proves that some animals do have amazing memory, not to mention higher animals such as dolphins and chimpanzees, even lower animals such as mice, crabs, turtles, toads, star crows and swamps.

Tits also have memories. For example, rats can walk out of the maze; turtles, crabs and toads can accurately repeat the route of their predecessors to lay eggs; swamp tits and star crows, who have the instinct to store food, can always accurately retrieve the food they buried a long time ago; how to explain this phenomenon is the innate instinct or the acquired memory refers to the characteristics of the environment, or it is obvious based on the smell information The ambiguous explanation of “instinctive behavior” or “conditioned reflex” can not fully answer the above questions. There is indeed a problem of memory in animals, but the basis of memory in some animals has not been fully understood. In order to reveal the mystery, scientists have done a lot of experiments and research, and have found the memory basis of some animals, such as the memory basis of turtles is smell; the memory basis of crabs is the location of planets and geomagnetism; and the memory of star crows is based on the geomorphic characteristics of the storage area. However, there are still some animals whose memory bases are puzzling.

For example, toads, in order to breed, will march to the pond after hibernation. Sometimes the journey is hundreds of meters away. It’s amazing that if toads encounter other ponds on their way to the destination, they will not jump nearby to spawn in these ponds and breed next generation. They will struggle to climb to specific ponds. It turns out that this is where their generations lay their eggs together. At first, it was speculated that the memory basis of toads was also related to smell or planets and geomagnetism. However, Professor Shi Jujin’s experiment at Waseda University in Japan denied this assumption. If Shi Jujin put the parturient toads a little farther away from the breeding pond, then the toads will never return to this pond, and they will lose their way. Why is it still a mystery, and it remains to be further explored. One step research.

In order to uncover the mystery of the memory of British swamp tits, a series of experiments were carried out to place 12 branches in a large house, each of which drilled some small holes with the size of just one hemp seed, a total of 100, each of which was stuffed with a small cloth. The birds wanted to store or search for hemp seeds. The stuffed cloth must be taken first.

The first experiment was to let a swamp tit take 12 hemp seeds from a bowl on the central floor of the room and store them. Due to the size of the hole, each seed must be hidden in a different hole.

When the hemp seeds are hidden, the titmouse is shut out of the house. After 2.5 hours, it is put in again to find the hemp seeds stored. It is clear that if this search is completely blind, it will take about 8 holes to find I seeds. In fact, the swamp tit only explored 24 holes and found 10 of them. That is to say, on average, 2.4 times have a chance to hit, which shows that this is far from an opportunity. Class hypothesis can explain.

It was speculated that this might be related to smell, so a second experiment was designed.

This time on the same branch, first let the swamp tits store 13 seeds, then transfer the seeds to other holes, and then let the swamp tits come in to look for them. Of the 24 caves it explored, 11 are now empty, comparable to the results of the first experiment. In terms of the seeds actually found, there are only 4 seeds in total at this time, that is to say, only one is obtained for every 6 holes searched on average, which is quite close to the probability of opportunity. It can be seen that the swamp tits do not search for storage according to smell. In order to further verify that birds store food by memory, a third experiment was designed.

This time, first let the swamp tit store the first batch of seeds, then put them in the room two hours apart, and let them store the second batch of seeds. If swamp tits remember which holes have seeds in them, they will avoid those holes with seeds when storing the second batch. If memory doesn’t work, and they only search for the holes by preference or random, then repeated accidents will occur.

However, when the birds store the second batch of seeds, they almost never search for the holes in the trees where the seeds have been stored. It does remember which holes have food in them and which holes have not been used.

However, the memory base of swamp tits. What it is remains to be further explored.

At present, animal memory has become a research topic of interest to scientists all over the world. The research objects are also extended to spiders, octopus, horses, silver snake, bees, crows and so on.

Scientists have found that the animal’s memory is related to ribonucleic acid, acetic acid and other substances in the brain. The RNA can be extracted and injected, so the animal’s memory can also be transferred. World famous. Neurochemist George ungal believes that animal memory is a chemical property, which consists of small protein molecules arranged in an orderly way. He trained the rats to have a memory through the fear emotion when they were shocked. Then he extracted the terror memory substance and injected it into another rat. Without electric shock, it produced that kind of fear emotion, indicating that the memory of the former has been inherited by the latter.

To sum up, there are many unsolved mysteries about animal memory that we need to find out.