Dog, (Latin: Canislupusfamiliaris, English name dog) Chinese is also known as “canine”, dogs belong to the carnivores, distributed throughout the world. Dogs and horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens are called “six animals.” Some scientists believe that the dog was domesticated from the early white wolf, and the domestication time was from 40,000 years ago to 15,000 years ago. Known as “the most loyal friend of mankind”, it is now the pet with the highest rate of feeding. Its life span is about ten years. In Chinese culture, the dog belongs to one of the twelve zodiac signs and ranks 11th among the zodiac signs.

Global quantity
Dogs are a very common canine mammal and the highest rate of pets.
According to United Nations statistics, there are about 600 million dogs in the world, and there are about 200 million in China. Dogs are the earliest domesticated animals.

Advantage contribution

Nursing dog: guarding human safety and property, housekeeping homes…

Play the dog: companionship, play reward…

Hunting dogs: hunting charge…

Animal husbandry: Shepherd dog, cattle dog…

Medical dog: Because the dog is optimistic, it is suitable for caring for and coping with heart disease, depression patients, autism patients (excluding violent patients); the premise is to choose a dog that has been domesticated and will not mess up, otherwise it may increase the burden Causes aggravation of the disease.

Nursing dogs: take care of people who are difficult to take care of themselves; they can help people take off their shoes/socks, withdraw money from cards, open/close doors, turn on/off lights, push/pull cars, take things from the refrigerator…

Guide dog: Compared with the care dog, the responsibility is more serious. Always accompany the owner. Most things the owner needs are guided by the guide dog; guide the owner to cross the road, and the dog goes shopping alone.

Military dogs: Some countries specialize in military dog ​​medals; military dogs, police dogs, customs drug dogs, airport gunpowder monitoring dogs…

Search and rescue dogs: Avalanches, earthquakes, fires and other disasters occur as search and rescue work.

Traffic dogs: Eskimos near the Arctic Circle and some people in northeast China use “sled dogs.”

Performance dogs: Most circuses have dogs for performances, a lot of skills, talents…

Experimental dog:

(1) Medical experiment: In the medical and pharmaceutical research, because the weight of the mouse and the difference between the people are too large, it is often necessary to use the dog for the test.
(2) Space experiment: (Continued content / click: [1])

Species evolution

Canine ancestor
No one knows for sure when the first interaction between a person and a wolf occurs. Some scientists believe that it may have been 50,000 years ago, because it took at least a long time for the wolf to develop the genetic differences. At that time, people and wolves were distributed in many places on the surface of the earth, and the evolution process may occur in several different regions. Some scholars believe that wolves were domesticated from wild wolves to livestock, or dogs, for playing, hunting, and nursing homes 14,000 years ago, perhaps even southeast Asia, 16,000 years ago.

The dog originated from the wolf and has gained consensus, but there are many different opinions about the specific birthplace and time. The earliest evidence of dog fossils came from a mandible fossil from Germany 14,000 years ago. These archaeological evidences support that dogs originated in southwest Asia or Europe. On the other hand, the skeletal identification of dogs suggests that dogs may originate from wolves. This puts forward the dog’s East Asian origin theory. In addition, different breeds of dogs are very diverse in morphology and seem to favor the hypothesis that dogs originate from wolves of different geographical groups. It is difficult to provide reliable clues about the origin of dogs by archaeology alone. (Continued content / click: [2])

Domestication process
Two dog skulls from the University of Arizona, unearthed from Belgium and Siberia, at least 33,000 years ago, show that dogs have been tamed by humans since ancient times.
The researchers said the dogs had shorter noses and wider jaws, while wolf-like wild animals needed a slender nose and a narrow jaw to catch their prey. According to them, this shows that our ancestors have long been taming dogs to resist danger and to let go of loneliness. The researchers also believe that dogs may be the first animal domesticated by humans, far ahead of livestock. (Continued content / click: [3]) [4]

Gene code
The evolution of dogs is related to starch digestion: researchers from Uppsala University have revealed many changes in the process of evolution of wild dogs into human best friends by comparing the whole genome of dogs and wolves. Unsurprisingly, many of these different areas affect the brain, which may explain the difference in temperament between wolves and dogs. In addition, this comparative study also pointed out several areas related to digestion, including genes that help break down starch.
The researchers said that by finding humans and eating leftovers from humans, dogs may have self-domesticated. Israel’s fossil and genetic studies identified the dog’s domestication period as about 10,000 years ago, in line with the agricultural revolution, when humans changed from nomadic hunters to farming and living in settlements. Some scientists believe that wolves have been attracted to the garbage dumps of these early settlements, feeding on vegetables and cereals leftovers. (Continued content / click: [5]) [6]

Civilization influence
As the earliest domesticated livestock, the existence and evolution of dogs are inextricably linked to the development of human civilization. For it, Westerners praised it with exquisite works of art and regarded it as the most faithful guardian. But dogs always have a low status in the minds of Chinese people. This is evident from the archaeological discoveries that have been unearthed in China.
The most anticipated is the discovery of a large number of mammalian fossils in the strata of Zhoujiayoufang, Yushu County, Jilin, China, in the late Pleistocene period of the Paleolithic Age, about 20,000 BC to 10,000 BC. In addition to the fossils, the dog’s skull “semi-fossil” appeared. Although some believe it belongs to Pleistocene fossils, more experts believe that they are the remains of Holocene or modern animals. The remains of such Paleolithic domestic dogs can indicate that residents of northeastern China have begun to dog. In other words, the northeastern dog appeared in the late Paleolithic period, about 10,000 years ago. The original humans in northeastern China were Mongolian Tungusians, so there is reason to believe that the ancestors of Donghu, Yi, Di, and Su Shen first domesticated dogs, of which the famous dog breeds.

It can be seen that the northeast and Mongolia are the centers of domestication of dogs in the late Paleolithic period and the early and middle stages of Neolithic. In addition, in Anhui Anyang, Hebei Cishan, Shaanxi Xi’an Banpo, Shandong Dawenkou, Jiangsu Changzhou and other places have discovered the skeleton fossils of the late Holocene dogs, which can be affirmed that China is a domesticated dog One of the centers. (Continued content / click: [7]) [8]

Life ranking
Under normal circumstances, the life span of a dog is between 10 and 15 years, and the average life expectancy is about 12.6 years, and the longest is about 20 years. Similar to the average life expectancy of cats, the average life expectancy is longer for small dogs:
Beijing dog over 18 years old

Maltese dog 18 years old

Poodle 15 years old

Mini dachshund 14.4 years old

Whippet 14.3 years old

Tibetan mastiff is about 14 years old

Pomeranian 14 years old

Chow Chow 13.5 years old

Mini Schnauzer 13.5 years old

Shih Tzu Dog 13.4 years old

Miguel Beagle, 13.3 years old

Joyo Dog 13.3 years old

Border Collie 13.0 years old

Chihuahua (Chihuahua) 13.0 years old

Fox Terrier, 13.0 years old

Bagidian dog 12.8 years old

West Highland White Terrier, 12.8 years old

Yorkshire Terrier 12.7 years old

American Cocker Spaniel 12.5 years old

Collie Collie 12.3 years old

Berne Butterfly Dog 12 Year Old Afghan Hound 12 Years Old

Labrador Retriever 12 years old

Golden Retriever (Golden Retriever) 12 years old

Mountain dog 12 years old

French Bulldog 12 years old

British Cocker Spaniel 11.8 years old

Irish Snow Dog 11.8 years old

Siberian Husky 11.8 years old

Welsh Cork 11.3 years old

Samoyed dog 11.0 years old

Boxer dog 10.3 years old

Deer dog 10 years old

Doberman 9.8 years old

Great Dane 8.4 years old

Characteristics – Physiology

Dog’s sense of smell
The dog’s olfactory sensitivity ranks first among the animals, and the eye-catching dog can use the nose to live like a normal dog. The dog’s sensitive sense of smell is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is sensitivity to odor; the other is the ability to distinguish odor. Sensitivity varies depending on the type of taste, about 1200 times the human sense of smell. The dog’s nose can distinguish about 2 million different odors, and it also has a high degree of analytical ability to sniff out the odor it is looking for from many mixed odors. The dog’s ability to sense odor can reach the molecular level. For example, when 1 cubic centimeter contains 9000 butyric acid molecules, the dog can smell, and in general, there are about 268×10.e+16 molecules per cubic centimeter of air. Therefore, the concentration of butyric acid in dogs is 3.36×10.e-17. When someone dilutes sulfuric acid by one tenth of a degree, the dog can still smell it, and the sensitivity to acid is tens of thousands of times higher than that of humans.

According to the findings of the European Lung Disease Foundation, lung cancer is the second most common cancer in Europe. The study found that olfactory-trained dogs were able to smell 71 out of 100 breath samples from lung cancer patients, and 372/400 discrimination accuracy for samples without lung cancer. (Continued content / click: [11])

Dog hearing
The hearing sensitivity is up to 120,000 Hz, which is 16 times that of humans. The farthest distance to listen is about 400 times that of people. The dog’s ability to distinguish the direction of the sound is twice that of humans, and it can distinguish 32 directions. It can distinguish the metronome from 96 or 100 vibrations per minute, 133 or 144 times. For human passwords and simple language, dogs can establish conditioned reflections based on pitch syllable changes.
The dog can hear 40,000 cycles. The sound collected through the big ear, through the external ear canal tympanic membrane, and even the ear bones of the middle ear, is transmitted to the lymph of the inner ear, and then transmitted to the brain by the auditory nerve. Dogs can distinguish very small or high frequency sounds (ultrasonic waves). The ability to judge the sound source is also very strong. When the dog hears the sound, because of the sympathetic effect between the ear and the eye, it is possible to achieve six-way eyes and listen to all directions. In the evening, it maintains a high degree of alertness even when sleeping, and can distinguish clearly within a kilometer. It is especially important to note that we don’t have to yell at the dog. Excessive sound or audio is a kind of adversity stimulus for it, which makes it feel painful, frightened or panic.

Dog vision
The dog’s eyesight is only about three-quarters of the person’s. In all animal species, the dog’s vision is about medium. The dog’s single eye can only see 25 degrees, so the front distance is not visible. The eyeball of the dog’s eye is relatively large and deforms like a horse’s eyeball, so it is impossible to adjust the sense of distance. Two or thirty meters is about its limit. Dogs have special ability to monitor moving objects; they can detect images moving 70 lines per second, while the average TV line moves about 60 picks per second. When the light is dim, the dog’s vision is better than the human eyesight. The dog is a natural carnivore, born by hunting, so they also have considerable vision in the dark. The dog’s eyes can see short-wavelength colors. In addition, the dog’s cornea is larger, allowing more light to enter the eye, making it easier to see things in dim light. But in the darkness of all without light, the dog could not see it.
The difference between human and canine vision is in response to light, and the human eye responds to the three primary colors (red, green, and blue) that cause various colors. Dr. Dennis Brooks, associate professor of ophthalmology at the University of Florida School of Veterinary Medicine, said that dogs have different visual and human visions; dogs can’t distinguish colors like humans, but dogs can see certain colors. Dogs can distinguish between different shades of blue, enamel and purple, but there is no special sensibility for high chroma colors such as red and green in the spectrum. Dr. Brooks’ research shows that red is dark for dogs and green for dogs, so the green lawn is a white meadow for dogs. (Continued content / click: [12])

Dog’s teeth
The canine teeth are all short-crowned, the first and second incisors have a three-peak shape, the middle is a dog spike, and there are small spikes on both sides. The other incisors have two small peaks, the canine is curved and conical, and the tip is sharp. It is a powerful weapon for attack and self-defense. The front teeth are three-shaped, and the Japanese teeth are multi-peak.
(1) The canine tooth (constant tooth) tooth type is: a total of 42 incisors, canines, premolars and molars.

(2) The fangs of the puppies are: a total of 28 incisors, canines and premolars, and one anterior molar and caries.

Dog sweat gland
Canines such as dogs and wolves, the sweat glands in the body are not very developed. It is not possible to regulate body temperature by sweating like a person. Once their body heats up, it is difficult to lower their body temperature, so dogs are very afraid of heat.
Dogs also have two sweat glands, the exocrine sweat gland and the apocrine sweat gland. The exocrine sweat glands used to regulate body temperature are only distributed on the meat pads of the four claws, and very few, only a little sweat from the claws, can not reduce body temperature. The apocrine sweat glands that cause their body odor are distributed throughout their body and have nothing to do with thermoregulation.

As long as the dog feels a little hot, he will open his mouth, stick out his tongue, and gasp in a big mouth, which can secrete a lot of saliva instead of sweat. Dogs dissipate heat by evaporating saliva and lower body temperature. They drool in large amounts and lower their body temperature by evaporating heat from the saliva. When the weather is hot, it is impossible to cool down by this method alone. Therefore, it is difficult for dogs to lower their body temperature. In particular, small dogs such as pugs, trumpet dogs, poodles and chihuahuas, because of their short respiratory organs, are not good at regulating body temperature, especially for heat, and should pay more attention. [13]

Dog’s stomach
The dog’s digestive tract is shorter than that of herbivores. The dog’s stomach hydrochloric acid content ranks first in livestock, and the intestinal wall is thick and absorbable, so it is easy and suitable for digesting meat food.

Interpretation of sleep
Young dogs and old dogs sleep longer, and young and strong dogs sleep less. Dogs are generally in a state of light sleep, and they can wake up with a little movement, but there are also times when they are sleeping. When the dog is sleeping, the dog is lying in a reclining position. The head is between the two front paws, and often one ear is close to the ground. After asleep, the dog is not easy to be awakened, sometimes giving a nightmare, such as squatting, squatting, accompanied by twitching of the limbs and shaking of the head and ears. When I am asleep, I often lie on my side and my body is unfolding. It looks very smooth.

Dogs are not easily awakened by acquaintances and masters when they sleep, but they are still sensitive to strange sounds. After the dog was awakened and awakened, he often seemed to be in a bad mood. He was very dissatisfied with the person who awakened it. The dog that had just been awakened was sleepy, sometimes even the master could not recognize it. Therefore, its dissatisfaction sometimes vents to the owner, such as the roar of dissatisfaction with you. Don’t wake it up because of boredom or mischief. (Continued content / click: [15])

Related knowledge
Adopting an alternative transaction

Please replace the transaction with adoption, reduce stray animals, and there are no casualties without buying or selling. Adoption “required” conditions:

Adopted in the case of the family’s consent, otherwise the dog will eventually suffer and pay the price because of family disputes.

Make sure you have enough financial ability to support “you and your dog.”

Make sure you have extra time and energy to clean up and behave “dog troubles.”

Eliminate the rise and adopt: You can first adopt a friend’s dog (preferably choose a dog that loves to eat eggs). If you can bear the consequences and then plan, otherwise there may be a human mood ups and downs will bring lifelong regret to the dog. Put an end to the “fashion and watching TV movies” and then adopt them and then throw them. It is only because you are in the moment of seeing the “beautiful side”. When you see that the dog is “insufficient”, it will continue to like it. It is the essential psychological element for adoption.

If adopted, it will be a lifetime.

If you can’t raise it, try to find a place for your dog, and don’t give up.

Timely dog ​​certification

The dog card refers to the proof that “the dog can live.” If you have a dog, you can get a dog card. It should be done once a year, just like the annual car inspection. Do it yourself or go to a regular pet hospital. Handling process: take the dog to the local city city appearance and environmental sanitation administrative department or its entrusted city street office to apply for registration, fill in the dog registration form, and provide the following materials (see: dog card:

Resident residence booklet, identification and photocopy;

An immunization certificate issued by an animal epidemic prevention institution established according to law;

2 photos of dogs.

Watch the dog

Be sure to tie the dog to the rope when walking, because even if your dog is very docile, but others don’t know, or even if you know the dog is docile and afraid, you should not force others to accept your habits and your dog’s “docile” dog. When you notice that passers-by are afraid of your dog, please pull the dog rope close to show people respect each other. The purpose is to try to make a good impression on the “prejudiced dog.”

And you must bring a “pick bag of dog dung” to prevent the dog from excreting.

〖With a mouth set abomination dog〗 For a dog that loves to bite or loves a scary dog, be sure to bring a firm mouthpiece (the dog that the unsound mouthpiece will get rid of). (* Tip: To avoid the dog breaking free, please use the “chain with a bracelet”)

〖When the dog enters the elevator or crosses the road〗 When you enter the elevator or cross the road, you must “must” pull the dog rope close. It is recommended to pull the dog directly from the “neck” of the dog and then enter the elevator. Otherwise, the dog will just move out when it is out. When the door is closed, the person and the dog will be separated by the elevator door. As the elevator goes up and down, the dog is likely to be caught in the neck, and the “God Quality” elevator will also be dangerous. (Recommendation: a dog chain with a strap and a bracelet. Because the collar will be necked, no bracelet will break free.)

For the road dog

Most of the dogs that yell at you are not bad dogs. The real evil dog, unless it is restricted, will use the screaming to intimidate you, otherwise it will not take time to give you the opportunity to escape to you, but to smack as much as you can, or even if you are The fierce screaming is straightforward.

The dog that is yelling at you but not too close is using a squeak to warn you that “you are in the restricted area near it, there is something that it maintains (puppies, territories, food, masters…)”, when you come The closer you are to the things it maintains, the louder and more frequent the dog’s voice, and you have to know that you shouldn’t be close again, you can wait for the owner to come and continue. Or take a slow detour, try not to give it a provocative misunderstanding, or even a dog that doesn’t bite, you may end up thinking that you will catch up with you and fear.

If you encounter a dog that is not close to the light, you should not look directly at it, but look elsewhere, kneel down, wait for it to stop and walk slowly.

Or, if you encounter a dog that is not close to the light, let it go, but don’t look at it, and walk away slowly without worry. Otherwise, the more you walk away, the more you will be vigilant and chase you. The more you resist, the closer you are to the tragedy.

Can’t pick a dog

You can’t pick a dog, especially a bad dog. The dog’s temper will get worse and worse. Second, although some dogs are caught or the owner is present, if the dog is really angry, it will not break the three seven twenty-one chains, and some dogs are very angry.

Common sense
Clean up dog hair

(1) Use a vacuum cleaner (preferably with a sputum type). (2) Wipe with a damp towel and circle. (3) After pulling the wide tape, pull it out for a certain length, do not cut it, and roll the pulled tape back to the tape tube in the opposite direction. When it is glued, it can be used for sticking hair. When it is used up, it will be cut and thrown. If you use it again, and so on.

Airplane/train dog

You can ask the pet hospital to handle it, or do it yourself: prepare 2 cards: one is a dog immunization certificate (usually a rabies vaccine is available, the pet hospital can do it); one is a quarantine certificate for the dog cage (self-prepared Air box, to the animal husbandry station to pay the fee) prompt:

Early arrival: Plan the aerobic cargo space 2 days in advance and arrive at the aircraft cargo office 3 hours in advance.

Avoid extrusion: Bring your own special flight case. (Hint: In order to prevent the staff from pressing other items on the box, 1 can be placed on the air box 6 and affixed with a “fried and not pressed” large-sized sticker. 2 or a plastic product wrapped with tape around the air box. Otherwise it is overwhelmed. There may be an accident: example [17])

Drinking water: Almost every air box comes with a drinking fountain. (Hint: You can first freeze the water filled with water into ice cubes, and then install it on the plane, you don’t have to worry about the water being overturned. But remember, then you should inquire about the pet’s condition, so as not to cause the pet to fail. board the plane)

Don’t change the plane: If the transfer is made, the pet may be mistakenly sent to another place. (Hint: If the plane is late, you can ask the shipping office to send the pet to the cargo compartment later to ensure safety.)

Sedatives: If your pet is prone to stress or irritation, you can purchase a sedative from your veterinarian (* remember not to administer it yourself).

Air box marking: In order to distinguish and hurry to find, it is best to give the air box a distinctive mark.

Feeding – health

Canine disease ranking
Canine disease with high mortality: 1. Canine distemper, 2. Small, 3. Coronavirus…

Medical knowledge
Timely sterilization

If it is not for breeding dogs, it is recommended to sterilize and give the dog the benefits of sterilization:

Avoid unwanted breeding. If cats and dogs are not sterilized, the number of offspring will increase geometrically: a pair of unsterilized cats and dogs will be allowed to mate and breed. If they have 2 births per year, 2-8 per child, theoretically 5 years. It will increase to 12,680. In many countries, wild cats or stray dogs are the result of the proliferation of pets without castration. A large number of unneeded small animals were born into the world, and the fate must be very tragic.

The castrated pets are more temperate and easy to raise; they also avoid the pet’s bitterness and may be lost from the home. The undejected female dog estrus twice a year, and the female cat estrus every 3 months. During the estrus, the animals always try to go out to find a couple. Even if they are at home, they will have a bad temper, or they will urinate and induce the opposite sex, and even damage the furniture objects, causing a lot of trouble. Male dogs will not be hurt by jealousy and fighting each other.

Castration is good for the health of pets, and genital diseases such as breast and uterine infections in females, testicular cancer and prostate disease in males are no longer occurring.

Is it too cruel to do castration surgery for pets? Obviously not. Castration is a minor operation, especially male castration surgery is much simpler. The veterinarian performs under anesthesia, the animal does not suffer, and it quickly returns to health.

Pregnant women with Toxoplasma

(See: Toxoplasma gondii) The main source of infection of Toxoplasma gondii is the ingestion of animal meat that has been infected with Toxoplasma gondii, or by-products of Toxoplasma gondii (such as eggs, milk, cakes, ice cream… related products). Other sources of infection include: infection by toxoplasmosis, mosquitoes, cockroaches, vegetables and fruits, grasslands, water, the environment, etc. Toxoplasma infection, except that the cat is the ultimate host, other animals are only intermediate hosts. There is a cystic scorpion in the infected cat feces. After the cat is infected, the feces excrete the zygote for a short time, only 10-20 days. The cystic zygote needs to develop in the outside world for 1-2 days or longer before it is contagious. Therefore, if cat litter or cat feces are removed every day, it is not afraid of being infected. The dog is the intermediate host of Toxoplasma gondii. After the dog is exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, it does not produce oocysts that are infectious to humans. Its feces and excretions are not contagious, so it is not infected with toxoplasmosis. If you don’t eat dog meat, you won’t get infected. [19]