Chlorine in your water
I don’t know why not everyone knows this, but chlorine can kill fish in a few days. If you live in a town or have a water pipe instead of a well, you have chlorine in your water. Chlorine can kill dirty microorganisms and bacteria in drinking water, but it can also kill fish! The best way to avoid this problem is to put some natural things in the water (let chlorine volatilize), or buy water purification agent. The water purifier is cheap and easy to use. It only needs a few drops per gallon, but please read the instructions before use.
II. Knowledge of excessive or lack of nitrogen cycle
1. Precautions for aquarium
When fish are placed in a new aquarium, their gills and waste produce ammonia. Ammonia is toxic, like chlorine, and will build up in a few days. If you put all the fish in the aquarium right now, ammonia will kill your fish soon. So how do we get rid of ammonia? Through a process called skin “nitrogen cycle” (sometimes called ammonia cycle). You should wait a few days (or a week) before adding fish to give the natural bacteria time to grow. These bacteria “eat” ammonia and turn it into nitrite, which is still toxic. Over the next few weeks, another bacteria grew, turning nitrites into nitrates, which are almost harmless and plant fertilizer. These bacteria make the aquarium more suitable for the survival of fish. It is very important for your fish to simply understand this process. The tank circulates in slightly more than a month. An incorrect way is to empty the water tank when the water looks bad, which will kill all the bacteria! Then you have to start the whole process mentioned above and carry out nitrogen circulation again.
If the tank starts to grow algae, buy an algae eating fish, such as a scavenger. Anyway, there is no free maintenance. After a few months, the nitrate concentration began to increase, and algae grew in large numbers. The solution to this problem is to change part of the water every two weeks (or every week). You can buy it in any pet or fish shop with a clean gravel siphon. This tool can suck the fish waste, unfinished food and dirty water in the gravel into the bucket. The correct amount of water removal is 10% – 25% of the volume of the water tank. After you absorb water, fill the tank with fresh, chlorine free water. Make sure that the water you add reaches a certain temperature, or the temperature of the water tank will drop quickly. This method can remove the nitrogen from the water, and almost guarantee the health and long-term growth of the fish, but there are still some things to be careful.
If the fish die, don’t buy new fish for a week or two. This will allow the water tank to adjust itself and grow more bacteria if necessary. If your tank is 5-20 gallons, don’t exceed two or three fish. Big water tank, you can put more fish in at once, but still be careful. Try to stick to the “one inch fish per gallon” principle. Some people say that the principle still allows you to overfill your water tank, but always keep the idea that less is better than more.
2. Function of filter
Some types of filters are designed to help bacteria grow. These filters are often referred to as “biofilters.” The two most popular types are bottom level filters (UGF) and bio wheel filters. UGF uses rising bubbles or pumps to pump water through the gravel bed. Water first flows down through the gravel (oxygen is supplied to bacteria), then through the filter plate at the bottom of the sand, and finally up into the riser. I have a complex feeling about this type of filter. They can work effectively for some people, but they are full of garbage and food. If you decide to use this filter, you have to clean it often, otherwise the bacteria will die and the filter will become useless. The biological wheel filter uses a wheel paddle device to supply oxygen to the bacteria. The wheel is placed at the outlet of a specially designed power filter. The wheel is sometimes in the water, sometimes in the air. As long as the wheel is rotating, the bacteria will live. A particular wheel should be heavy and brown. Don’t wash! Otherwise you’ll kill all the bacteria that have been growing for months again. Some filters do not use these principles but still provide biofiltration. Filters using silk or sponge (filter media) have bacteria growing on them. But it’s less effective, and eventually when it starts to clog you will have to clean or replace it thoroughly, which will also remove bacteria. The extra advantage of sponges is that they can be reused, saving you a little money in the future.
A more complex way to reduce nitrates is through plants. They absorb nitrates and phosphates, or they can be used by algae. In any case, plants can cause more problems if you don’t know what you’re doing. Read more about plants before you start. The growth of plants does not exclude the need to change water. In fact, plants need to change water to provide trace elements beneficial to them. The biggest problem for plants is that most species need a lot of light, more than three times as much as ordinary aquarium animals. Customizing a lid with several lights is an option, but it may not be enough.
Another piece of advice: if you have problems with simple fresh water tanks, don’t buy sea water tanks! They need twice as much care as a fresh water tank and cost at least twice as much to build and maintain. Unless you are very resolute or have too much money, it’s probably not worth our trouble. Keep fresh water fish until you can keep them healthy for several years in a row.
Most tropical fish can live for at least one or two years, and the species with long life span can live for more than ten years. It seems that the life span of goldfish is not too short, so if you want to keep goldfish, you must pay attention to the above issues, so as to reduce the mortality of goldfish.