Elephants are the largest mammals on land in the world. They belong to the order Long Nose. There are only one family, two genera and three species, namely Elephants, African Elephants and Asian Elephants. There are two kinds of African Elephants: common African Elephants (also known as Tropical Grassland Elephants or Shrub Elephants) and African Forest Elephants. There is only one species of Asian Elephants (also known as Indian Elephants). It is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the tropical and subtropical areas along the border between Southeast Asia and southern China.
The Characteristics and Life Habits of Elephants
Elephants are pregnant for 10 to 12 months, and newborn elephants weigh 100 kilograms, requiring 8 to 14 years of age to reach sexual maturity. The largest elephant reportedly killed in Angola in 1974 weighed 13.5 tons.
Elephant skin is thicker and less hairy, nose and upper lip heal into a long cylindrical nose, two maxillary incisors are large and long, that is the so-called “ivory”. Generally, there are three premolars and three posterior molars on each side of the mouth. They eat high-fibre food, leaves, grass and so on. Molars do not grow at the same time. After the existing molars are worn out, new molars grow. So if the last molar (the sixth) wears out after about 60 years old, the elephant may die of malnutrition, and if it continues to feed ground food, it may continue to live.
Is it true that elephants like to eat stone and earth? It’s true, of course. To prevent malnutrition. Elephants regularly eat mineral-rich rocks or mud to supplement salt and nutrients. They also love bathing. There are many kinds of bathing: water bath, mud bath, dust bath, etc.
Elephants inhabit a variety of habitats, especially in jungles, grasslands and valleys. Communities, male animals occasionally solitary. It eats a lot of plants and eats more than 225 kilograms a day. Life expectancy is about 80 years. Some elephants have been domesticated by humans as livestock for riding or serving. Ivory has always been used as a valuable carving material, which is expensive, so the number of elephants has been wantonly arrested and declined sharply.
Elephants often need to bathe or do mud baths because they have little hair and are prone to skin diseases. The elephant skin is thick and wrinkled. Some wrinkles are more than ten centimeters deep. The skin is light gray. Because the mud bathing sometimes looks like the red brown of the earth, and the brown eyes have long hair. There is a rare albino image. The white elephant eyes are usually blue. Color.
Elephants have large ears, abundant blood vessels to dissipate heat, a short tail and a brush on the top.
Elephants are herbivores. They need 16 hours a day to collect food. Their digestive system efficiency is not high. Only 40% of the food can be absorbed. An adult elephant can eat 30 to 60 kg of food a day, but 60% of it is excreted.
The elephant normally walks 3 to 6 kilometers a day to find food, but can run as fast as 36 kilometers an hour.